|Quick Facts||Concepts, Skills and Terminology||How to Learn More||Find Services|
- Over 15 million refugees exist in the world today. Global Trends 2011, United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
- Canada annually takes in one out of every 10 refugees who are resettled globally. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- Refugees in Canada include those who are government-assisted, privately sponsored, as well as refugees that have landed in Canada and refugees’ dependents who are still abroad.
- About 14,500 refugees are resettled in Canada annually by 2013. The Government plans to increase this number by 20%. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- Over 200,000 refugees accepted in total in Canada through the Privately Sponsored Program. Government of Canada
- In 2011, there were:
- over 24,900 persons who made refugee claims within Canada under the Asylum Program.Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- over 15,900 refugees in Ontario. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- over 57,000 refugee claimants in Ontario.Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
Concepts, Skills & Terminology
Discover important concepts, definitions and terms relating to serving refugee communities in the settlement sector.
Refugees are people who have fled their countries because of a well-founded fear of widespread persecution, and who are unable to return home. Many refugees come from war-torn countries and have seen unthinkable horrors.
- A refugee is different from an immigrant, in that an immigrant is a person who chooses to settle permanently in another country, whereas refugees are forced to flee. United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
- Under the official definition used in Canadian law, however, the term immigrant includes refugees. The Canadian government defines immigrants as “persons residing in Canada who were born outside of Canada, excluding temporary foreign workers, Canadian citizens born outside Canada and those with student or working visas. Statistics Canada, 2010
Canadian Refugee System and Programs
- The Canadian refugee system, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) has two main parts:
- 1. The Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program, for people seeking protection from outside Canada; and
- 2. The In-Canada Asylum Program for people making refugee protection claims from within Canada.
- The Resettlement Assistance Program (RAP), Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) provides income support to government-assisted refugees and offers other essential services such as:
- 1. Welcoming at the point of entry
- 2. Temporary housing
- 3. Help to find permanent housing
- 4. Other settlement services, including financial assistance.
- 1. Groups of five or more individuals, and
- 2. Private sponsorship organizations representing religious, ethnic and community groups can sponsor refugees for resettlement to Canada.
- These groups take on the responsibility of providing refugees with accommodation, resettlement assistance and emotional support for up to one year. In exceptional circumstances, this assistance can be extended for up to three years for refugees with special needs, such as victims of trauma and torture, or women and children at risk.
- Economic and social integration indicators suggest that refugees face more difficulty integrating than other immigrants. Key challenges include the following from Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC):
- 1. Difficulty accessing adequate housing
- 2. Limited or no labour market skills
- 3. Limited official language skills
- 4. Mental and physical health concerns
- 5. Developmental issues for children.
The Global City: Newcomer Health in Toronto, 2011 reports the following findings:
- Many refugees have vastly different pre-migration experiences compared to those of economic and family class immigrants. As a result, refugees often arrive in Canada with:
- 1. Greater health risks
- 2. Greater access challenges
- 3. Lower levels of education
- 4. Lower levels of English proficiency.
- For example, only 13.6% of refugees (arriving between 2005 and 2009) came with a university education compared to more than 80% of economic immigrants (principal applicants). These factors contribute to poverty and employment challenges.
- Many refugees that migrate to Canada have undergone difficult and traumatic pre-migration experiences, including exposure to war, torture, violence, targeted persecution, forced labour, forced migration and family separation.
- These experiences are significant sources of stress and are therefore risks to refugees’ mental health. Some examples of findings that relate to traumatic pre-migration experiences to health include the following:
- 1. Settlement challenges: Research reports that Afghan, Karen and Sudanese refugees experience unique settlement challenges as a result of the traumatic pre-migration experiences that many have had and lower levels of education and literacy upon arrival (compared to other categories of migrants).
- 2. Depression: Pre-migration trauma (e.g., refugee camp internment) and post-migration events have both been associated with depression among Ethiopian newcomers in Toronto.
- Government Assisted Refugees (GARs) even take longer than refugees in general to become self-sufficient and active participants in their new communities. RAP income support is essential to providing basic life needs while GARs take their first steps towards integration. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
Refugee Health Care and Immigration Loans
- The Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP), Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) provides limited, temporary coverage of health-care benefits to people in the following groups who are not eligible for provincial or territorial health insurance
- Protected persons, including resettled refugees;
- Refugee claimants; and
- Certain other groups.
Permanent Residents to Ontario must also wait for three months to receive OHIP coverage. Changes to the Interim Federal Health Program have reduced or eliminated temporary health care coverage for refugees and refugee claimants who do not qualify for provincial or territorial health insurance plans. The Global City: Newcomer Access to Health Services, 2011
- The Immigration Loans Program (ILP), Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) helps government-assisted and privately sponsored members of the Convention Refugees Abroad and Country of Asylum classes cover:
- 1. The costs of medical examinations abroad;
- 2. Travel documents; and
- 3. Transportation to Canada.
- Loans are approved according to the applicant’s needs and ability to repay. Assistance loans are also available to newcomers to cover expenses such as housing rental, telephone deposits and work tools.
The Best Settlement Practices, Canadian Council for Refugees, 1998 offers best practice guidelines for working with refugees. Services should:
- 1. Be accessible services to all who need them
- 2. Be inclusive, respectful of, and sensitive to, diversity
- 3. Foster client empowerment
- 4. Be responsive to needs as defined by users
- 5. Use a holistic service approach by taking account of the complex, multifaceted, interrelated dimensions of settlement and integration
- 6. Fully respect the rights and dignity of the individual
- 7. Culturally sensitive
- 8. Promote the development of newcomer communities and newcomer participation in the wider community, and develop communities that are welcoming of newcomers
- 9. Be based on collaboration with partners
- 10. Be accountable to the communities served
- 11. Oriented towards promoting positive change in the lives of newcomer and in the capacity of society to offer equality of opportunity for all
- 12. Based on reliable, up-to-date information
Due to the multitude of heightened challenges associated with forced migration, refugees often have greater needs and are more vulnerable than immigrants in general. This calls for a greater need for cultural competence and knowledge of general guidelines for dealing with mental health in settlement work. See Settlement and Mental Health for further elaboration.
How to Learn More
|Featured Resource! Supporting Government-Assisted Refugees: A Coordinated Service Delivery Model - INSCAN (International Settlement Canada) - 2009|
Further your knowledge with practical guides, best practices, projects and research. Find out how to become qualified to work in the field through online or classroom-based training.
Best Practices/Practical Guides
- Claimant Guide - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
- This guide includes information on the refugee claim process, as well as definitions of commonly used terms.
- Guide to the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2012
- Information Guide for Joint Assistance Sponsors - Ontario Region - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2004
- The objective of this information guide is to assist Joint Assistance Sponsors prepare for the arrival of their refugee families.
- Interim Federal Health Program: Summary of Benefits - Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- Interpreter Handbook - The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) - 2004
- An online handbook for people dealing with immigration and refugee matters.
- Inside RAP Newsletter - Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2011
- A summary of best practices in supporting refugees in the search for permanent accommodations.
- Making a Refugee Claim - Legal Aid Ontario
- This website includes basic information about filing a refugee claim, including the steps involved, timelines and additional resources that could help you.
- Pathway for Refugee Claimants - A practical resource to support a diversity of refugee claimant needs.
- Pathways to Gender Justice - A Tool Kit for People Working in the Immigrant and Refugee Serving Sector in Canada - Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) - 2006
- This tool kit seeks to educate and inform the immigrant and refugee serving sector about gender issues, and encourages agencies and workers to incorporate gender analysis into their work.
- Refugee Claim: Appellant's Guide - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
- Refugee Mental Health: Promising Practices and Partnership Building Resources - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - 2010
- Refugee Mental Health Practices is written for people who work with refugees, particularly those who provide settlement, health, mental health and other social support services.
- Settlement Support for Family Reunification - A Practical Guide Canadian Refugee Council (CCR) - 2008
- This guide is provided to assist organizations in serving refugees and immigrants who are confronted with barriers as they attempt to reunite with family members.
- Supporting Government-Assisted Refugees: A Coordinated Service Delivery Model - INSCAN (International Settlement Canada) - 2009
- This provides information for new staff to become more familiar with GARs, the programs that support them and how agencies can best serve them.
- Journey to Promote Mental Health Hong Fook Mental Health Association
- Interactive 2-day training series for settlement service providers, offered across Ontario
- Individual and in-house group training for staff from immigrant service agencies whose positions are funded by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI)
- York University Centre for Refugee Studies Summer Course on Refugee and forced migration issues - York University
- Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed) – Hong Fook Mental Health Association and Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) - 2008
- The Refugee Mental Health Course for Settlement Workers - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
- Client Support Services for Government Assisted Refugees Evaluation of Province –Wide Pilot Initiative Final Report - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2009
- Improving Health Outcomes for Government Assisted Refugees – Final Report - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2012
- Infectious Disease Control A Training Initiative for Resettlement Staff/Volunteers - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2008
- This CIC training initiative was provided in response to a need identified by staff and volunteers involved in the Resettlement Assistance Program (RAP) and the Private Sponsorship of Refugees (PSR) Program.
- Refugee Sponsorship Training Program - Sponsorship Agreement Holders (SAHs) of Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC).
- Evaluation of Government Assisted Refugees (GAR) and Resettlement Assistance Program (RAP) - Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2011
- Evaluation of RAP Life Skills Pilot Project and CIC Response to Recommendations - Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2005
- Evaluation of the Resettlement Assistance Program - Final Report - Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2002
- International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology: Available as an interactive and searchable online tool in English, French, and Spanish, the thesaurus is designed to facilitate organizations that process information concerning refugees.
- Partners in Settlement of Privately Sponsored Refugees in Ontario - Final Report - Ontario Administration of Settlement and Integration Services (OASIS), Citizenship and Immigration Canada - - 2002
- The final report of a conference for Refugee Sponsors, Immigrant Serving Agencies, and CIC staff.
- Paved with Good Intentions: Paths of Secondary Migration Of Government-Assisted Refugees in Ontario - Ontario Administration of Settlement and Integration Services (OASIS),Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) - 2001
- This study is about why government-assisted refugees who are selected overseas for re-settlement in Canada change the course of their journeys.
- State of Refugees: An Introduction to Refugee and Immigration Issues in Canada - Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) - 2008. This 8-page booklet outlines Canada's roles in protecting refugees and refugee claimants.
- Community Health Centres - Association of Community Health Centres
- Community Volunteer Clinic for the Medically Uninsured
- ConnexOntario Health Service Information - ConnexOntario
- Resettlement Assistance Program service provider organizations - Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
- Legal Aid Ontario Services in Immigration and Refugee Law - Legal Aid Ontario (LAO)
- Settlement Services - Start Right Program for Newcomers
- Services Near Me - Settlement.Org