Difference between revisions of "Settlement and Mental Health"

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=Settlement and Mental Health=
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= Settlement and Mental Health =
 
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<div class="portalintro">[[Image:head.jpg|link=]]Settlement workers need to have knowledge of mental health, enhanced capacity to detect early signs of mental health issues in immigrants and refugees at risk of developing mental illness, and strengthened ability to connect those at risk to the appropriate services.</div>
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<div class="portalintro">[[File:Head.jpg|Head.jpg|link=]]Settlement workers need to have basic knowledge of mental health. They need to have enhanced capacity to detect early signs of mental health issues in immigrants and refugees, and strengthened ability to connect those at risk to the appropriate services.</div>
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== Quick Facts ==
 +
<div class="newtoc">__TOC__
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</div>
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=== Mental Health in Canada ===
  
==Quick Facts==
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*One in five Canadian lives with a mental health illness each year. [http://strategy.mentalhealthcommission.ca/the-facts/ Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC)]
<div class="newtoc">__TOC__</div>
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*Immigrants and refugees experience stresses associated with immigration and resettlement that may place them at increased risk of developing mental health problems. [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23054 Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario]
 +
*Canadian newcomer mental health has been described in [http://www.toronto.ca/health/map/newcomer.htm The Global City: Newcomer Health in 2011]:
  
===Mental Health in Canada===
+
:1. Most newcomers arrive in better health, including mental health, than Canadian-born residents.
 
+
:2. Overall, newcomers lose their health advantage and their health declines over time.
* One in five Canadian lives with a mental health illness each year. [http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/January_2013/Case_for_Investment/Investing_in_Mental_Health_FINAL_ENG.pdf Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC)]
+
:3. Newcomers have diverse health needs. Certain newcomer sub-populations are at higher risk for specific mental health issues, including women, low income newcomers, some racialized newcomers and refugees.
* Immigrants and refugees experience stresses associated with immigration and resettlement that may place them at increased risk of developing mental health problems. [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23054  Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario]
+
:4. Settlement is a health issue.
* Canadian newcomer mental health has been described in [http://www.toronto.ca/health/map/newcomer.htm The Global City: Newcomer Health in 2011]:
+
:5. Newcomers experience multiple barriers to accessing necessary services. This includes access for mental healthcare and services for newcomers to specialists, counselling and therapy, and education and prevention programs.
: 1. Most newcomers arrive in better health, including mental health, than Canadian-born residents.  
+
:6. Newcomers' health knowledge and positive behaviours should be acknowledged and promoted.
: 2. Overall, newcomers lose their health advantage and their health declines over time.  
 
: 3. Newcomers have diverse health needs. Certain newcomer sub-populations are at higher risk for specific mental health issues, including women, low income newcomers, some racialized newcomers and refugees.  
 
: 4. Settlement is a health issue.
 
: 5. Newcomers experience multiple barriers to accessing necessary services. This includes access for mental healthcare and services for newcomers to specialists, counselling and therapy, and education and prevention programs.
 
: 6. Newcomers' health knowledge and positive behaviours should be acknowledged and promoted.
 
  
 
=== Social Determinants of Health ===
 
=== Social Determinants of Health ===
  
* Social factors may have an influence over a life course to increase or decrease someone‟s risk of developing a mental health problem or illness. Some increase vulnerability while others act as factors that precipitate illness. Some prolong illness and still others prevent illness and restore health.  
+
*Social factors may have an influence over a life course to increase or decrease someone‟s risk of developing a mental health problem or illness. Some increase vulnerability while others act as factors that precipitate illness. Some prolong illness and still others prevent illness and restore health.
* Vulnerability at specific transitions in life, such as during migration, are due to a significant increase in life stresses at a time when the social safety-net may not be as strong.
+
*Vulnerability at specific transitions in life, such as during migration, are due to a significant increase in life stresses at a time when the social safety-net may not be as strong.
* The [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php#key_determinants Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) lists 12 determinants of health]. With the exception of the biology and genetic endowment determinant, the rest of the 11 of these determinants could be considered social determinants of health and may be particularly pertinent to immigrant and refugee groups. In addition, an important determinant of health that is relevant to immigrants and refugees is their migration experience and immigration category. [http://www.toronto.ca/health/map/newcomer.htm The Global City: Newcomer Health in 2011]
+
*The [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php#key_determinants Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) lists 12 determinants of health]. With the exception of the biology and genetic endowment determinant, the rest of the 11 of these determinants could be considered social determinants of health and may be particularly pertinent to immigrant and refugee groups. In addition, an important determinant of health that is relevant to immigrants and refugees is their migration experience and immigration category. [http://www.toronto.ca/health/map/newcomer.htm The Global City: Newcomer Health in 2011]
  
===Mental Health and Culture===
+
=== Mental Health and Culture ===
* Although mental illnesses have similar symptoms across cultures, their manifestations and how people describe and interpret symptoms vary with ethnicity and culture.
 
* For instance, some ethno-cultural groups are more likely to present emotional problems as physical problems.
 
* Similarly, stigma within a culture varies according to the cultural and sociological backgrounds of the community.
 
* There is evidence that ethnic minorities experience mental illness stigma more harshly than majority groups. Due to family-shared shame, and different cultural perceptions of mental illness and its causes, many members of minority groups delay treatment. [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23054 Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario].
 
  
==Concepts, Skills & Terminology==
+
*Although mental illnesses have similar symptoms across cultures, their manifestations and how people describe and interpret symptoms vary with ethnicity and culture.
<div style="float:right;width:400px;text-align:right"><videoflash type="youtube">aPGkLDOSPmM|400|300</videoflash>Predictors of Being Good at Being an Immigrant</div>
+
*For instance, some ethno-cultural groups are more likely to present emotional problems as physical problems.
 +
*Similarly, stigma within a culture varies according to the cultural and sociological backgrounds of the community.
 +
*There is evidence that ethnic minorities experience mental illness stigma more harshly than majority groups. Due to family-shared shame, and different cultural perceptions of mental illness and its causes, many members of minority groups delay treatment. [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23054 Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario].
  
 +
== Concepts, Skills & Terminology ==
 +
<div style="float:right;width:400px;text-align:right"><videoflash type="youtube">RgeNgYhSsME|400|300</videoflash>Kwame McKenzie: Diversity and Mental Health</div>
 
'''Discover important concepts, definitions and terms relating to mental health in the settlement sector.'''
 
'''Discover important concepts, definitions and terms relating to mental health in the settlement sector.'''
===Terminology===
 
* The [http://www.who.int/features/qa/62/en/index.html WHO (World Health Organization)] describes mental health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It is the foundation for well-being of individuals, families and communities.
 
* The WHO defines mental health as “... a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”. 
 
  
====Resources====
+
=== Terminology ===
* [http://www.cmhapeel.ca/determinantsofhealth.htm Canadian Mental Health Association of Peel's terminology and determinants of health]
+
 
* [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php Public Agency of Health Canada terminology]
+
*The [http://www.who.int/features/qa/62/en/index.html WHO (World Health Organization)] describes mental health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It is the foundation for well-being of individuals, families and communities.
 +
*The WHO defines mental health as “... a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”.
 +
 
 +
==== Resources ====
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.cmhapeel.ca/determinantsofhealth.htm Canadian Mental Health Association of Peel's terminology and determinants of health]
 +
*[http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php Public Agency of Health Canada terminology]
 +
*[http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/initiatives-and-projects/mental-health-strategy-canada/youth-perspective The Mental Health Strategy for Canada: A Youth Perspective]
 +
 
 +
=== '''Concepts''' ===
 +
 
 +
Three ideas central to the improvement of health follow from the definition above:
 +
 
 +
*Mental health is an integral part of health.
 +
*Mental health is more than the absence of illness.
 +
*Mental health is intimately connected with physical health and behaviour.
 +
 
 +
=== '''Skills''' ===
 +
<div style="float:right;width:400px;text-align:right"><videoflash type="vimeo">67401588|400|300</videoflash>Supporting Refugee Mental Health</div>
 +
==== Cultural Competence ====
 +
 
 +
Although there is no universally accepted definition of cultural competence, the common elements are the key principles of cultural competence, such as inclusiveness, holistic health, anti-oppression, and valuing diversity have been recommended for practice in settlement service delivery for immigrants and refugees. [http://www.ofcmhap.on.ca/sites/ofcmhap.on.ca/files/CulturalCompetwC%20(4).pdf Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs, 2009]<br/><br/>Rationale for Cultural Competence in Service Delivery:
 +
 
 +
*Ontario’s demographics have become vastly diverse. This diversity goes beyond language and culture.
 +
*Service providers are finding it increasingly challenging to provide adequate mental health care to diverse populations.
 +
*Evidence shows differential and inadequate levels of service for particular marginalized populations, resulting in negative health outcomes.[http://www.ofcmhap.on.ca/sites/ofcmhap.on.ca/files/CulturalCompetwC%20(4).pdf Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs - 2009]
 +
 
 +
<br/>Benefits for Cultural Competence Approach in Service Delivery include:
 +
 
 +
*Improved access for underserved groups.
 +
*Improved service quality.
 +
*Greater satisfaction with services received.
 +
*Reduced health disparities.
  
==='''Concepts'''===
+
In order to provide culturally safe services to respond to the diverse needs of Canadians immigrant and newcomer groups, service providers need to communicate and practice in a way that takes into account the social, political,<br/>linguistic and spiritual realities of individuals seeking our support while working in partnership with them. (Mental Health Commission of Canada - 2009).
Three ideas central to the improvement of health follow from the definition above:
 
* Mental health is an integral part of health.
 
* Mental health is more than the absence of illness.
 
* Mental health is intimately connected with physical health and behaviour.
 
  
==='''Skills'''===
 
====Cultural Competence====
 
Although there is no universally accepted definition of cultural competence, the common elements are the key principles of cultural competence, such as inclusiveness, holistic health, anti-oppression, and valuing diversity have been recommended for practice in settlement service delivery for immigrants and refugees. [http://www.ofcmhap.on.ca/sites/ofcmhap.on.ca/files/CulturalCompetwC%20(4).pdf  Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs, 2009]
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
Rationale for Cultural Competence in Service Delivery:
 
* Ontario’s demographics have become vastly diverse. This diversity goes beyond language and culture.
 
* Service providers are finding it increasingly challenging to provide adequate mental health care to diverse populations.
 
* Evidence shows differential and inadequate levels of service for particular marginalized populations, resulting in negative health outcomes.[http://www.ofcmhap.on.ca/sites/ofcmhap.on.ca/files/CulturalCompetwC%20(4).pdf  Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs - 2009]<br>
 
<br>
 
Benefits for Cultural Competence Approach in Service Delivery include:
 
* Improved access for underserved groups.
 
* Improved service quality.
 
* Greater satisfaction with services received.
 
* Reduced health disparities.<br>
 
In order to provide culturally safe services to respond to the diverse needs of Canadians immigrant and newcomer groups, service providers need to communicate and practice in a way that takes into account the social, political, linguistic and spiritual realities of individuals seeking our support while working in partnership with them. (Mental Health Commission of Canada - 2009).<br>
 
  
  
====Some Guiding Principles for Dealing with Mental Health in Settlement Work====
+
==== Some Guiding Principles for Dealing with Mental Health in Settlement Work ====
 +
 
 
The [http://www.hongfook.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=125 Hong Fook Reference Handbook 2012] includes the following themes, amongst others, in guiding settlement service to immigrants and refugees with mental health challenges:
 
The [http://www.hongfook.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=125 Hong Fook Reference Handbook 2012] includes the following themes, amongst others, in guiding settlement service to immigrants and refugees with mental health challenges:
* Mental health can be conceptualized in terms of a continuum from wellness to illness instead of discrete states.  
+
 
* Empowerment and capacity building.
+
*Mental health can be conceptualized in terms of a continuum from wellness to illness instead of discrete states.
* Diversity and cultural competence.
+
*Empowerment and capacity building.
* Wellness and recovery; and community participation.
+
*Diversity and cultural competence.
 +
*Wellness and recovery; and community participation.
 +
 
 +
<br/>Common types of mental illnesses and their signs are described by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in the [http://www.camhx.ca/education/online_courses_webinars/mha101/ Mental Health and Addiction 101 Series].
  
  
Common types of mental illnesses and their signs are described by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in the [http://www.camhx.ca/education/online_courses_webinars/mha101/                      Mental Health and Addiction 101 Series].<br>
 
  
 +
== How to Learn More ==
  
==How to Learn More==
 
 
{| class="ambox ambox-move"
 
{| class="ambox ambox-move"
 
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|-
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| class="mbox-image" | [[File:40px-Crystal package settings.png|40px|40px-Crystal package settings.png]]
| class="mbox-text" | Featured Resource! [http://learnatwork.ca/   Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed)] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and Hong Fook Mental Health Association
+
| class="mbox-text" | Featured Resource! [http://learnatwork.ca/ Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed)] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and Hong Fook Mental Health Association
 
|}
 
|}
<p>'''Further your knowledge with practical guides, best practices, projects and research.'''</p>
 
<p>'''Find out how to become qualified to work in the field through online or classroom-based training.'''</p>
 
  
===Best Practices/Practical Guides===
+
'''Further your knowledge with practical guides, best practices, projects and research.'''
* [http://www.settlement.org/downloads/alone_in_canada.pdf Alone in Canada: 21 Ways to Make It Better] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2001'''
+
 
* [[Best Practices: Somali Family Mental Health Support Program]] - Midaynta Association of Somali Service Agencies, Family Outreach & Response Program and Somaliland Canadian Society of Metro Toronto - '''2005'''
+
'''Find out how to become qualified to work in the field through online or classroom-based training.'''
* [http://cbpp-pcpe.phac-aspc.gc.ca/public-health-topics/social-determinants-of-health/ Best Practices Portal] - Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
+
 
* [http://knowledgex.camh.net/policy_health/mhpromotion/culture_counts/Documents/Culture_Counts_2012.pdf   Culture Counts: A Guide to Best Practices for Developing Health Promotion Initiatives in Mental Health and Substance Use with Ethnocultural Communities] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2012'''
+
=== Best Practices/Practical Guides ===
* [http://www.crvawc.ca/documents/guidebook%20on%20vicarious.pdf Guidebook on Vicarious Trauma: Recommended Solutions for Anti-Violence Workers] - Health Canada - '''2001'''
+
 
* [[Immigrant Settlement Counselling: A Training Guide/Module 7: Mental Health Issues]] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) - '''2000'''
+
*[http://www.settlement.org/downloads/alone_in_canada.pdf Alone in Canada: 21 Ways to Make It Better] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2001'''
* [http://knowledgex.camh.net/amhspecialists/guidelines_materials/Documents/refugee_mental_health_prompractices.pdf Refugee Mental Health:Promising Practices and Partnership Building Resources] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2010'''
+
*[[Best Practices: Somali Family Mental Health Support Program]] - Midaynta Association of Somali Service Agencies, Family Outreach & Response Program and Somaliland Canadian Society of Metro Toronto - '''2005'''
* [http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf Report on the Promotion of Mental Health] - World Health Organization (WHO) - '''2004'''
+
*[http://cbpp-pcpe.phac-aspc.gc.ca/public-health-topics/social-determinants-of-health/ Best Practices Portal] - Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
* [http://nyspi.org/culturalcompetence/what/pdf/Issue_6.pdf Strategies to Decrease Health Disparities among Individuals with Limited English Proficiency] - Center of Excellence for Cultural Competence, New York State Psychiatric Institute - '''2010'''
+
*[http://knowledgex.camh.net/policy_health/mhpromotion/culture_counts/Documents/Culture_Counts_2012.pdf Culture Counts: A Guide to Best Practices for Developing Health Promotion Initiatives in Mental Health and Substance Use with Ethnocultural Communities] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2012'''
 +
*[http://www.crvawc.ca/documents/guidebook%20on%20vicarious.pdf Guidebook on Vicarious Trauma: Recommended Solutions for Anti-Violence Workers] - Health Canada - '''2001'''
 +
*[[Immigrant Settlement Counselling: A Training Guide/Module 7: Mental Health Issues]] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) - '''2000'''
 +
*[http://www.cleo.on.ca/en/publications/mentill Mental Health, Criminal Offences and Deportation: Tips for Front-line Workers] - Community Legal Education Ontario (CLEO) - '''2013'''
 +
*[http://ca.ctrinstitute.com/free-webinar/ Mindfulness as a Counselling Tool (Recorded Webinar)] - Crisis and Trauma Research Institute Inc. - '''2016'''
 +
*[http://edmonton.cmha.ca/mental-health/multi-language-brochures/#.V5tNU5MrKAx Multi-Language Mental Health Brochures] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) - '''2016'''
 +
*[https://ca.ctrinstitute.com/free-webinar/refugees-and-trauma-free-webinar/ Refugees and Trauma – Tips for Supporting (Webinar Recording)] - Crisis and Trauma Research Institute Inc. - '''2016'''
 +
*[http://knowledgex.camh.net/amhspecialists/guidelines_materials/Documents/refugee_mental_health_prompractices.pdf Refugee Mental Health:Promising Practices and Partnership Building Resources] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2010'''
 +
*[https://www.porticonetwork.ca/web/rmhp/toolkit Refugee Mental Health Toolkit] – Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
: This online toolkit is a collection of online training, tools and material to be used by service providers on mental health
 +
*[http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf Report on the Promotion of Mental Health] - World Health Organization (WHO) - '''2004'''
 +
*[http://nyspi.org/culturalcompetence/what/pdf/Issue_6.pdf Strategies to Decrease Health Disparities among Individuals with Limited English Proficiency] - Center of Excellence for Cultural Competence, New York State Psychiatric Institute - '''2010'''
 +
 
 +
=== Courses/Training ===
 +
 
 +
*[http://toronto.cmha.ca/programs-and-services/community-support-services/our-public-workshops/face-to-face-understanding-mental-illness/ Face to Face: Understanding Mental Illness] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
 
 +
:Workshop to learn the signs and symptoms of mental illness, and develop the skills and tools for how to best engage with those experiencing mental health challenges.
  
===Courses/Training===
+
*[http://toronto.cmha.ca/programs-and-services/community-support-services/our-public-workshops/joining-hands-cross-cultural-mental-health/ Joining Hands: Cross-Cultural Mental Health] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
* [http://journeytopromotementalhealth.wordpress.com/ Journey to Promote Mental Health] Hong Fook Mental Health Association
 
: An interactive 2-day training series for settlement service providers, offered across Ontario
 
* [http://www.ocasi.org/professional-education-and-training-pet Professional Education and Training (PET)]
 
: Individual and in-house group training for staff from immigrant service agencies whose positions are funded by [[Citizenship and Immigration Canada|Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)]] and the Ontario [[Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration|Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI)]]
 
  
====Online Learning====
+
:This workshop helps service providers understand how individuals from different cultures view mental illness, what their understanding of treatment is, and how that impacts the way in which they seek help.
* [http://www.sickkids.ca/culturalcompetence/elearning-modules/eLearning-modules.html  Cultural Competence E-Learning Modules Series] - The Hospital for Sick Children (Sick Kids)
 
* [http://learnatwork.ca/  Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed)] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and Hong Fook Mental Health Association
 
* [http://www.camhx.ca/education/online_courses_webinars/mha101/ Mental Health and Addiction 101 Series] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 
* [http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ontario/Pages/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ontario.aspx The Forensic Mental Health System in Ontario: An Information Guide] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 
* [http://www.sickkids.ca/culturalcompetence/journey-to-cultural-competence-film/Journey-to-Cultural-Competence-Film.html  The Journey to Cultural Competence Film] - The Hospital for Sick Children (Sick Kids)
 
  
===Related Projects/Initiatives===
+
*[http://journeytopromotementalhealth.wordpress.com/ Journey to Promote Mental Health] Hong Fook Mental Health Association
*[http://www.mcgill.ca/mmhrc/ Multicultural Mental Health Resource Centre (MHCC)]
+
 
 +
:An interactive 2-day training series for settlement service providers, offered across Ontario
 +
 
 +
*[http://toronto.cmha.ca/programs_services/the-opening-doors-project/#.UUn4C46DR_c Opening Doors Project] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
 
 +
:A free workshop series for newcomer communities, communities of mental health survivors, mental health services, agencies and institutions.
 +
 
 +
*[http://toronto.cmha.ca/programs-and-services/community-support-services/our-public-workshops/negative-attitudes-and-difficult-people/ Negative Attitudes and Difficult People] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
 
 +
:This workshop teaches strategies for handling challenging personality types and minimizing the impact of their attitudes and behaviors in our lives.
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.ocasi.org/professional-education-and-training-pet Professional Education and Training (PET)]
 +
 
 +
:Individual and in-house group training for staff from immigrant service agencies whose positions are funded by [[Citizenship and Immigration Canada|Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)]] and the Ontario [[Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration|Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI)]]
 +
 
 +
*[http://toronto.cmha.ca/programs-and-services/community-support-services/our-public-workshops/stress-sense/ Stress Sense] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
 
 +
:This workshop helps individuals identify the main contributors to work/life stress, and learn coping strategies to achieve a sense of balance, satisfaction and success in their family and work lives.
 +
 
 +
==== Online Learning ====
 +
 
 +
*[http://myhealthmatters.ca/the-difference-between-depression-and-being-sad-or-unhappy/ The Difference Between Depression and Being Sad or Unhappy] - Dr/ So,pme Vigod, Psychiatrist, Women's College Hospital - '''2014'''
 +
 
 +
*[http://learnatwork.ca/ Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed)] - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and Hong Fook Mental Health Association
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.camhx.ca/education/online_courses_webinars/mha101/ Mental Health and Addiction 101 Series] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
*[http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ontario/Pages/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ontario.aspx The Forensic Mental Health System in Ontario: An Information Guide] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.porticonetwork.ca/web/rmhp/courses The Refugee Mental Health Course for Settlement Workers] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.sickkids.ca/ProgramsandServices/centre-for-innovation-and-excellence/Health-Equity-Cultural-Competence/Film-The-Journey-to-Cultural-Competence/Film-Journey-to-CC.html The Journey to Cultural Competence Film] - The Hospital for Sick Children (Sick Kids)
 +
 
 +
*[https://www.porticonetwork.ca/web/rmhp/participate/webinar-series Refugee Mental Health Webinars] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
*[http://media.psychologyfoundation.org/SupportingNewcomers/story.html Supporting Newcomer's Mental Health: Sharing our Success Stories (eLearning)] - The Psychology Foundation of Canada
 +
*[http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/issues/suicide-prevention/suicide-prevention-webinar-series?routetoken=1497c1ef1bb0c89a12c03902e08f51e9&terminitial=241 Suicide Prevention Webinar Series] - Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC)
 +
*[http://livingmyculture.ca/culture/ LivingMyCulture.Ca - Multilingual video series about end of life care, spirituality and grief] - Canadian Virtual Hospice
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Related Projects/Initiatives ===
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.mcgill.ca/mmhrc/ Multicultural Mental Health Resource Centre (MHCC)]
 
*[[RISE (Recovery during Immigration and Settlement)|Recovery during Immigration and Settlement (RISE)]]
 
*[[RISE (Recovery during Immigration and Settlement)|Recovery during Immigration and Settlement (RISE)]]
 
*[http://www.uhn.ca/clinics_&_Services/clinics/community_mental_health.aspUniversity Health Network (UHN) Clinics & Centres – Community Mental Health program]
 
*[http://www.uhn.ca/clinics_&_Services/clinics/community_mental_health.aspUniversity Health Network (UHN) Clinics & Centres – Community Mental Health program]
  
===Further Reading===
+
=== Further Reading ===
* [[ARQ2: Asking the right questions 2 - Talking With Clients about Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity in Mental Health, Counselling and Addiction Settings]] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2007'''
+
 
* [http://www.evasinitiatives.com/2012/05/07/backgrounder-on-homeless-youth-and-mental-health/ Backgrounder on Homeless Youth and Mental Health] - Eva's Initiatives - '''2012'''
+
*[[ARQ2: Asking the right questions 2 - Talking With Clients about Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity in Mental Health, Counselling and Addiction Settings]] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - '''2007'''
* [http://strategy.mentalhealthcommission.ca/strategy/ Canada's National Mental Health Strategy] - Mental Health Commission of Canada - '''2012'''
+
*[http://ontario.cmha.ca/files/2014/05/Advancing-Equity-In-Mental-Health-Final1.pdf Advancing Equity in Mental Health in Ontario] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario - '''2014'''
* [[Central American Immigrant Men and Mental Health: Problems with your Nerves? What can you do?]] - York Community Services Legal Health and Social Services - '''2000'''
+
*[http://www.evasinitiatives.com/2012/05/07/backgrounder-on-homeless-youth-and-mental-health/ Backgrounder on Homeless Youth and Mental Health] - Eva's Initiatives - '''2012'''
* [[CMAS Support Documents|CMAS (Childminding Advisory and Support)]] This includes, amongst others, tip sheets, "Care for Newcomer Children Requirements" and "Stress and Mental Health in the Newcomer Child"
+
*[http://strategy.mentalhealthcommission.ca/strategy/ Canada's National Mental Health Strategy] - Mental Health Commission of Canada - '''2012'''
* [[Improving Health Outcomes for Government Assisted Refugees – Final Report]] - PSTG Consulting for Citizenship and Immigration Canada - '''2012'''  
+
*[[CMAS Support Documents|CMAS (Childminding Advisory and Support)]] This includes, amongst others, tip sheets, "Care for Newcomer Children Requirements" and "Stress and Mental Health in the Newcomer Child"
* [[Mental Health for Immigrants - Video of an ESL Class Workshop]] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Toronto  
+
*[http://eenet.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/AMHO-COI-Racialized-Populations-May-2014-FINAL.pdf Exploring Mental Health- or Addictions-Related Emergency Department Use by Racialized Populations in Ontario] - Addictions and Mental Health Ontario Conference  - '''2014'''
: CMHA runs the Working Together: Across Cultures Project. In partnership with community, settlement, and employment organizations CMHA Toronto provides mental health capacity and cultural competency workshops to increase the quality of life of newcomers who are experiencing resettlement stress and mental health issues.
+
*[[Improving Health Outcomes for Government Assisted Refugees – Final Report]] - PSTG Consulting for Citizenship and Immigration Canada - '''2012'''
* [[Racialised Groups and Health Status: A Literature Review Exploring Poverty, Housing, Race-Based Discrimination and Access to Health Care as Determinants of Health for Racialised Groups|Racialised Groups and Health Status]] - Access Alliance Multicultural Health and Community Services - '''2005'''
+
*[[Mental Health for Immigrants - Video of an ESL Class Workshop]] Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Toronto
* [[State of Refugees: An Introduction to Refugee and Immigration Issues in Canada]] - Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) - '''2008'''
+
 
 +
:CMHA runs the Working Together: Across Cultures Project. In partnership with community, settlement, and employment organizations CMHA Toronto provides mental health capacity and cultural competency workshops to increase the quality of life of newcomers who are experiencing resettlement stress and mental health issues.
 +
 
 +
*[[Racialised Groups and Health Status: A Literature Review Exploring Poverty, Housing, Race-Based Discrimination and Access to Health Care as Determinants of Health for Racialised Groups|Racialised Groups and Health Status]] - Access Alliance Multicultural Health and Community Services - '''2005'''
 +
*[http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2013/hl/bgrd/backgroundfile-62904.pdf Racialization and Health Inequities in Toronto] - Toronto Public Health - '''2013'''
 +
*[[State of Refugees: An Introduction to Refugee and Immigration Issues in Canada]] - Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) - '''2008'''
 +
*[http://www.torontonorthlip.ca/resources/survey-training-report-frontline-workers-training-needs-mental-health-addictions-and Survey & Training Report: Frontline Workers' Training Needs in Mental Health, Addictions and Cultural Competence] - Toronto North Local Immigration Partnership (LIP) - '''2013'''
 +
 
 +
== Find Services ==
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/visiting_camh/rights_and_policies/Pages/Challenges_and_Choices.aspx Challenges & Choices: Finding Mental Health Services in Ontario] Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) '''2003'''
 +
*[http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/professionals/service_seeking.php Children's Mental Health Ontario Website] - Children's Mental Health Ontario (CMHO)
 +
*[http://www.connexontario.ca/ ConnexOntario Health Service Information] - ConnexOntario
 +
*[http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23055 Immigrants and Refugees: Related Resources] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
*[http://www.crct.org/choices/MakingChoicesGuide-v4-web.pdf Making Choices - Guide to Adult Mental Health Services and Supports in Toronto] - Community Resource Connections of Toronto (CRCT) - '''2011'''
 +
*[http://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/ Mental Health: Your Mental Health, Understanding Mental Illness and Finding Help] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 +
*[http://www.mooddisorders.ca/ Mood Disorders Support Programs] -  Mood Disorder Association of Ontario
 +
*[http://www.canmat.org/help.php Mood Disorders Help and Resources] - Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments
 +
*[http://www.crct.org/lanresources/PDFs/CRCT-NMHS-English.pdf Navigating Mental Health Services in Toronto. A Guide for Newcomer Communities] - Community Resource Connections of Toronto (CRCT)
 +
*[http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/admin_ver2/maps/network_23-3_winter_2008.pdf Navigating the System] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) of Ontario - '''2008'''
 +
*[https://knowledgex.camh.net/amhspecialists/resources_families/Documents/ptsd_brochure.pdf Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)] - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
 +
*[https://www.suicideinfo.ca/ Suicide Prevention] - Centre for Suicide Prevention
 +
*[http://www.mentalhealthhelpline.ca/Search/ServiceTypes Types of Mental Health Services in Ontario] - Ontario Mental Health Helpline
 +
*[http://www.settlement.org/findhelp/ Services Near Me] - Settlement.Org
 +
*[http://www.settlement.org/sys/faqs_detail.asp?faq_id=4001310&utm_source=Settlement.Org+Newsletter&utm_campaign=4319121e18-S_Org_Jan_14_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_222d50b41d-4319121e18-314468093 Where Can I Get Help With My Mental Health?] - Settlement.Org - '''2013'''
  
==Find Services==
 
* [http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/visiting_camh/rights_and_policies/Pages/Challenges_and_Choices.aspx  Challenges & Choices: Finding Mental Health Services in Ontario] Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) '''$'''
 
* [http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/professionals/service_seeking.php  Children's Mental Health Ontario Website] - Children's Mental Health Ontario (CMHO)
 
* [http://www.connexontario.ca/ ConnexOntario Health Service Information] - ConnexOntario
 
* [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23055  Immigrants and Refugees: Related Resources] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 
* [http://www.crct.org/choices/MakingChoicesGuide-v4-web.pdf Making Choices - Guide to  Adult Mental Health Services and Supports in Toronto] - Community Resource Connections of Toronto (CRCT) - '''2011'''
 
* [http://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/ Mental Health: Your Mental Health, Understanding Mental Illness and Finding Help] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
 
* [http://www.crct.org/lanresources/PDFs/CRCT-NMHS-English.pdf  Navigating Mental Health Services in Toronto. A Guide for Newcomer Communities] - Community Resource Connections of Toronto (CRCT)
 
* [http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/admin_ver2/maps/network_23-3_winter_2008.pdf Navigating the System] - Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) of Ontario - '''2008'''
 
* [http://www.mentalhealthhelpline.ca/Search/ServiceTypes Types of Mental Health Services in Ontario] - Ontario Mental Health Helpline
 
* [http://www.settlement.org/findhelp/ Services Near Me] - Settlement.Org
 
 
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Latest revision as of 15:27, 29 September 2016

Settlement and Mental Health

Quick Facts Concepts, Skills and Terminology How to Learn More Find Services
Head.jpgSettlement workers need to have basic knowledge of mental health. They need to have enhanced capacity to detect early signs of mental health issues in immigrants and refugees, and strengthened ability to connect those at risk to the appropriate services.

Quick Facts

Mental Health in Canada

1. Most newcomers arrive in better health, including mental health, than Canadian-born residents.
2. Overall, newcomers lose their health advantage and their health declines over time.
3. Newcomers have diverse health needs. Certain newcomer sub-populations are at higher risk for specific mental health issues, including women, low income newcomers, some racialized newcomers and refugees.
4. Settlement is a health issue.
5. Newcomers experience multiple barriers to accessing necessary services. This includes access for mental healthcare and services for newcomers to specialists, counselling and therapy, and education and prevention programs.
6. Newcomers' health knowledge and positive behaviours should be acknowledged and promoted.

Social Determinants of Health

  • Social factors may have an influence over a life course to increase or decrease someone‟s risk of developing a mental health problem or illness. Some increase vulnerability while others act as factors that precipitate illness. Some prolong illness and still others prevent illness and restore health.
  • Vulnerability at specific transitions in life, such as during migration, are due to a significant increase in life stresses at a time when the social safety-net may not be as strong.
  • The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) lists 12 determinants of health. With the exception of the biology and genetic endowment determinant, the rest of the 11 of these determinants could be considered social determinants of health and may be particularly pertinent to immigrant and refugee groups. In addition, an important determinant of health that is relevant to immigrants and refugees is their migration experience and immigration category. The Global City: Newcomer Health in 2011

Mental Health and Culture

  • Although mental illnesses have similar symptoms across cultures, their manifestations and how people describe and interpret symptoms vary with ethnicity and culture.
  • For instance, some ethno-cultural groups are more likely to present emotional problems as physical problems.
  • Similarly, stigma within a culture varies according to the cultural and sociological backgrounds of the community.
  • There is evidence that ethnic minorities experience mental illness stigma more harshly than majority groups. Due to family-shared shame, and different cultural perceptions of mental illness and its causes, many members of minority groups delay treatment. Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) Ontario.

Concepts, Skills & Terminology

Kwame McKenzie: Diversity and Mental Health

Discover important concepts, definitions and terms relating to mental health in the settlement sector.

Terminology

  • The WHO (World Health Organization) describes mental health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It is the foundation for well-being of individuals, families and communities.
  • The WHO defines mental health as “... a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”.

Resources

Concepts

Three ideas central to the improvement of health follow from the definition above:

  • Mental health is an integral part of health.
  • Mental health is more than the absence of illness.
  • Mental health is intimately connected with physical health and behaviour.

Skills

Supporting Refugee Mental Health

Cultural Competence

Although there is no universally accepted definition of cultural competence, the common elements are the key principles of cultural competence, such as inclusiveness, holistic health, anti-oppression, and valuing diversity have been recommended for practice in settlement service delivery for immigrants and refugees. Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs, 2009

Rationale for Cultural Competence in Service Delivery:

  • Ontario’s demographics have become vastly diverse. This diversity goes beyond language and culture.
  • Service providers are finding it increasingly challenging to provide adequate mental health care to diverse populations.
  • Evidence shows differential and inadequate levels of service for particular marginalized populations, resulting in negative health outcomes.Ontario Federation of Community Mental Health and Addiction Programs - 2009


Benefits for Cultural Competence Approach in Service Delivery include:

  • Improved access for underserved groups.
  • Improved service quality.
  • Greater satisfaction with services received.
  • Reduced health disparities.

In order to provide culturally safe services to respond to the diverse needs of Canadians immigrant and newcomer groups, service providers need to communicate and practice in a way that takes into account the social, political,
linguistic and spiritual realities of individuals seeking our support while working in partnership with them. (Mental Health Commission of Canada - 2009).


Some Guiding Principles for Dealing with Mental Health in Settlement Work

The Hong Fook Reference Handbook 2012 includes the following themes, amongst others, in guiding settlement service to immigrants and refugees with mental health challenges:

  • Mental health can be conceptualized in terms of a continuum from wellness to illness instead of discrete states.
  • Empowerment and capacity building.
  • Diversity and cultural competence.
  • Wellness and recovery; and community participation.


Common types of mental illnesses and their signs are described by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in the Mental Health and Addiction 101 Series.


How to Learn More

40px-Crystal package settings.png Featured Resource! Journey to Promote Mental Health: A Training Series for Community Workers (Self-directed) - Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and Hong Fook Mental Health Association

Further your knowledge with practical guides, best practices, projects and research.

Find out how to become qualified to work in the field through online or classroom-based training.

Best Practices/Practical Guides

This online toolkit is a collection of online training, tools and material to be used by service providers on mental health

Courses/Training

Workshop to learn the signs and symptoms of mental illness, and develop the skills and tools for how to best engage with those experiencing mental health challenges.
This workshop helps service providers understand how individuals from different cultures view mental illness, what their understanding of treatment is, and how that impacts the way in which they seek help.
An interactive 2-day training series for settlement service providers, offered across Ontario
A free workshop series for newcomer communities, communities of mental health survivors, mental health services, agencies and institutions.
This workshop teaches strategies for handling challenging personality types and minimizing the impact of their attitudes and behaviors in our lives.
Individual and in-house group training for staff from immigrant service agencies whose positions are funded by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI)
This workshop helps individuals identify the main contributors to work/life stress, and learn coping strategies to achieve a sense of balance, satisfaction and success in their family and work lives.

Online Learning



Related Projects/Initiatives

Further Reading

CMHA runs the Working Together: Across Cultures Project. In partnership with community, settlement, and employment organizations CMHA Toronto provides mental health capacity and cultural competency workshops to increase the quality of life of newcomers who are experiencing resettlement stress and mental health issues.

Find Services


If you want to comment or share a resource with us you can email atwork@ocasi.org or create your own page!