Report: Best Practices with LINC Literacy Learners

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Org: Jangles Productions (Jill Cummings, Mark Jacot and Adriana Parau)
Date: 2006

An Investigation of Best Practices in the Instruction and Assessment of LINC Literacy Learners in Ontario

Files Available for Download

Full Report [Acrobat PDF, 528 Kb] - en français [Acrobat PDF, 300 Kb]

CIC Response to the Full Report [Acrobat PDF, 34 Kb] - en français [Acrobat PDF, 40 Kb]

Executive Summary

Rationale for this Research Study

There are a growing number of newcomers arriving in Canada with literacy needs as a result of a change in immigration policy (Immigrant Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) 2002). This has placed greater demands on those delivering LINC programs. A decision was made to launch this investigation of literacy in order to obtain Best Practices and Recommendations from the teachers, coordinators and assessors who deliver LINC programs in Ontario. As a result, all those responsible for program delivery across the province could share and benefit from this pooling of best practices and recommendations, and provide guidance to Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and the Ontario Region LINC Advisory Committee (ORLAC) on how to improve the overall LINC program to better meet the needs of literacy learners in Ontario.

Research Objective

To investigate and document the best practices and recommendations for the instruction and assessment of LINC/ESL literacy in Ontario

  • Class observations
  • Interviews and focus groups with teachers, assessors, coordinator and learners
  • Survey of participating sites
Data Collection Overview

The project timeframe was from September 1, 2005 to February 28, 2006. Six communities (Guelph, Hamilton, Kitchener, London, Toronto and Ottawa) participated in the research. 173 teachers, coordinators, assessors and learners participated.

LINC Literacy Instruction Recommendations
  • Provide all LINC programs a clear policy statement from CIC that literacy students require specialized classes and services for them to realize their settlement potential
  • Provide designated literacy classes (most literacy students are now in multi-level classes)
  • Implement the four phases of literacy development as outlined in the Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: ESL for Literacy Learners
  • Ensure small literacy class size (maximum of 10)
  • Supply adult literacy materials and computer resources
  • Provide Professional Development specific to literacy instruction and assessment
  • Institute greater program flexibility to respond to the changing literacy demographics
  • Increase childminding support
  • Provide adequate transportation assistance
  • Establish Toronto Literacy Centres
  • Update the LINC Literacy Curriculum Guidelines
  • Involve best practice teachers, coordinators and assessors in resource development, facilitation of PD and long term research to track literacy students? progress
LINC Literacy Assessment Recommendations
  • Provide refresher workshops on how to use the existing CLBLA more effectively (Canadian Language Benchmarks Literacy Assessment)
  • Provide an equivalency reference chart that will bridge between the Literacy Benchmarks as described in the CLBLA and the Literacy Phases described in CLB ? ESL for Literacy Learners; as well, to reflect that equivalency reference chart in the assessment tools, the ARS and all the accompanying documentation
  • Provide on-going training and professional development for assessors and assessment coordinators
  • Foster good working relationships between LINC Assessment Centres and ESL programs providers